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Entomological Surveillance
Entomological Surveillance

CARPHA recognizes that entomological surveillance in CMS is inadequate not only because of resource constraints, but also because the system of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) is archaic. The reliance of IVM on paper-based data collection and processing, especially as it relates to entomological indices and epidemiological data, cripples the effectiveness of the vector control teams in CMS. The inability to predict increases in vector populations coupled with limited knowledge of the spatial epidemiological trends, often leads to recurrent outbreaks of vector-borne arboviral diseases such as Dengue.

In response, CARPHA is attempting to modernize the data collection and processing capacities of the CMS by implementing Geographic Information Systems to the vector control programmes as follows:

Entomological Surveillance

Training and Implementation of Novel Geographic Information System (GIS) Technology for combatting vector-borne diseases.

The Epi Info for Vector Surveillance App was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a Novel GIS tablet-based solution for vector surveillance and control.

In 2018, CARPHA began a regional rollout process by doing a GIS Epi-Info training workshop for 13 CMS (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Maarten, St. Vincent and Trinidad) with a total of 26 persons benefitting from the training. GIS-capable tablets were procured for all the attending CMS. The workshop was held from May 23rd to 25th, 2018 at the Insect Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, Trinidad.

Entomological Surveillance

The Objectives of the workshop were:

  • 1. To strengthen CARPHA Member States’ capacity implementation of GIS technology in entomological surveillance.
  • 2. To do a follow up of the receipt, installation and use of the QGIS platform.
  • 3. To introduce vector control personnel to a novel GIS solution for entomological surveillance.
  • 4. To provide field training in the use of Epi Info App for vector surveillance.
  • 5. To demonstrate the improvement of Integrated Vector Management Systems through implementation of GIS technology.
Geographic Information For Vector Surveillance (Gives) Training I&Ii
Integrated Vector Management

The operations of several vector control programs show limited adoption of the PAHO/ WHO IVM strategies. For example, some CMS may have a decentralized vector management system, whereas others utilize the services of non-specific, cross-disciplined health control officers in the execution of activities. However, even in the decentralized system, non-health stakeholders such as agriculture or sanitation are rarely involved. There is also a lack of community involvement in the vector control operations. The CMS require expert advice in restructuring their IVM strategies to be more in line with the PAHO/WHO IVM strategies, thereby improving their ability to effectively manage, prevent and control outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases.

CARPHA has responded to the IVM needs in the Caribbean through the following:

In response to the need for standardized guidelines for vector control, specific to the Caribbean Region, CARPHA, through a consultancy under the previously awarded CDC-Zika Project, developed a “Toolkit on Integrated Vector Management in the Caribbean”.

The IVM Toolkit was reviewed by vector control managers, for which it was intended, through a two-day training workshop from December 5-6, 2017, in Port of Spain, Trinidad.

This Toolkit is an expansion and update on the previously published “PAHO Manual on Integrated Vector Management (IVM) in the Eastern Caribbean” and incorporates teaching materials from the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) series of manuals on IVM.

CARPHA’s IVM Toolkit is designed to be used by vector control programme managers as a guide in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of an IVM approach. The Toolkit also provides information on common mosquito vectors and vector-borne diseases in the Caribbean and the tools for vector control operations within the IVM context.

The expectation is that vector control managers will introduce and begin to utilize the Toolkit as they implement and/or strengthen their respective vector control programmes through the IVM.

The IVM toolkit can be found HERE.

Capacity-building in the area of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) through technical assistance provided to CMS. These included the following country-specific activities:

  • 1. Assessment of the existing and potential entomology laboratory facilities.
  • 2. Training of vector control personnel in the entomology laboratory techniques associated with the collection and data management of Ae. aegypti mosquito indices.
  • 3. Development and implementation of feedback mechanisms for entomological indices and vector control field operations.
  • 4. Alignment of country IVM practices to WHO IVM best practice.

Seventy-six (76) public health officials from five (5) CMS (Antigua and Barbuda, Jamaica, Aruba, Suriname, Turks and Caicos) were trained in data management techniques associated with entomological indices under their vector control programmes. Details of this and other key achievements can be summarised as follows:

  • Evaluation of five (5) entomology laboratory facilities Aruba, Antigua and Barbuda, Jamaica, Suriname and Turks and Caicos. Using the WHO Laboratory Assessment Tool, laboratory facilities were ranked in 53-90%.
  • The 76 Entomology Laboratory, Environmental Officers and others were tested on Mosquito Indices Calculations of (HI, CI, BI).
  • Review of weekly and monthly reports of all CMS visited was completed to ensure mosquito indices were accurately being calculated. Also review of indices threshold systems used for Vector Control was also investigated.
  • Review of House Surveillance forms in all CMS visited was done. Jamaica and Aruba showed data from field was sufficiently recorded on forms. Forms in Turks and Caicos were also sufficient but historic records were destroyed by the hurricane. In Suriname, the last House Surveillance was recorded in 2016 due to chikungunya outbreak.
  • Information Flow Diagrams were completed for all CMS visited. Recommendations on improving sharing of information was completed.